Garden Hand Tools
A spade is a tool designed primarily for the purpose of digging or removing earth.
In gardening, a spade is a hand tool used to dig or loosen ground, or to break up clumps in the soil. Together with the fork it forms one of the chief implements wielded by the hand in agriculture and horticulture. It is sometimes considered a type of shovel. Its typical shape is a broad flat blade with a sharp lower edge, straight or curved. The upper edge on either side of the handle affords space for the used's foot, which drives it into the ground. The wooden handle ends in a cross-piece, sometimes T-shaped and sometimes forming a kind of loop for the hand.
The garden hoe is a hand tool used in farming and gardening. It has a blade, usually of metal, attached to a long handle, usually of wood. There are many types of blade, with a variety of uses, probably the most common of which is the removal of weeds. Along with the spade and fork, the hoe is considered a basic, essential hand farming implement.
Garden hoes are used to:agitate the surface of the soil around plants, to remove weeds, pile soil around the base of plants (hilling), create narrow furrows (drills) and shallow trenches for planting seeds and bulbs and generally dig and move soil (e.g. harvesting potatoes), and chop weeds, roots and crop residues.
A pitchfork is a gardening tool with a long handle and long, thin, widely separated pointed tines (also called prongs) used to lift and throw loose material, such as hay, leaves, grapes, or other agricultural products. Pitchforks typically have from 2 to 6 tines and have different lengths and spacing depending on purpose.
A spading fork (sometimes called a garden fork or graip) is anotherkind of gardening tool that is forklike and is sometimes also called a pitchfork; it is used for loosening and lifting soil in a garden or farm and is used similarly to a spade. Its tines are usually shorter than for a pitchfork, are flat and wide rather than thin and round, and are more closely spaced. The handle is shorter than for a pitchfork and usually has a D handle. This fork is also useful for lifting potatoes from the ground.
A garden fork differs from a pitchfork because it is designed for digging rather than for lifting. It is sturdier and has shorter, thicker prongs. Forks used to be made of wood but are now made or carbon steel or stainless steel.
A Rake (Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from a root meaning "to scrape together," "heap up") is an agricultural and horticultural implement consisting of a toothed bar fixed transversely to a handle, and used for the collection of leaves, cut hay and grass, etc., and, in gardening, for loosening the soil, light weeding and levelling, and generally for purposes performed in agriculture by the harrow.
Modern hand-rakes usually have steel, plastic, or bamboo teeth, though historically they have been made with wood or iron. The handle is often made of wood or metal. When rakes have longer teeth, they may be arranged in the shape of an old-style folding fan. Large versions mounted on wheels with a bar connecting long curved steel teeth can be used with tractors, descended from a horse-drawn type used prior to the growth of mechanical farming.
The plough (American spelling: plow) is a tool used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting. Ploughs are also used by industry underseas, for the laying of cables, as well as preparing the earth for side-scan sonar in a process used in oil exploration.
The plough can be regarded as a development of the pick, or of the spade. Ploughs were initially pulled by humans, later by oxen, and later still in some countries, by horses. Modern ploughs are, in industrialized countries, powered by tractors.
Ploughing has several beneficial effects. The major reason for ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil. This may also incorporate the residue from the previous crop into the soil. Ploughing reduces the prevalence of weeds in the fields, and makes the soil more porous, easing later planting. Excessively deep ploughing or digging brings up subsoil and mixes subsoil with topsoil. This can damage the soil.